Cannabis

The Plant

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Cannabinoids

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Terpenes

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Flavinoids

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The Entourage Effect

The Entourage Effect

Raphael Mechoulam First described in 1998 by Israeli scientists Shimon Ben-Shabat and Raphael Mechoulam, 

the basic idea of the entourage effect is that cannabinoids within the cannabis plant work together, or possess synergy, 

and affect the body in a mechanism similar to the body’s own endocannabinoid system.

This theory serves as the foundation for a relatively controversial idea within pharmacology community, that in certain 

cases whole plant extractions serve as better therapeutic agents than individual cannabinoid extractions. 

The entourage effect theory has been expanded in recent times by Wagner and Ulrich-Merzenich, who define the four 

basic mechanisms of whole plant extract synergy as follows:

Ability to affect multiple targets within the body

Ability to improve the absorption of active ingredients

Ability to overcome bacterial defense mechanisms

Ability to minimize adverse side effects.


Many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cannabis as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasms associated 

with multiple sclerosis. A study conducted by Wilkinson and colleagues determined that whole-plant extracts were more 

effective than THC alone.

Researchers compared 1mg THC vs. 5mg/kg cannabis extract with the equivalent amount of THC, and found the whole 

plant extract to have significantly more antispastic effect.

The researchers attributed this result to the presence of cannabidiol (CBD) within the cannabis extract, which helps to 

facilitate the activity of the body’s endocannbinoid system.

Improving Absorption Of Active Ingredients

The entourage effect can also work to improve the absorption of cannabis extracts. Cannabinoids are chemically polar 

compounds, which makes them at times makes them difficult for the body to absorb in isolation.

“With the assistance of terpenoids like caryophyllene, absorption of cannabinoids can be increased.”

Absorption of topicals provides a prototypical example of this problem. The skin is made up of two layers, also known 

as a bi-layer, which makes it difficult for for very polar molecules like water and cannabioids to pass through.

With the assistance of terpenoids like caryophyllene, absorption of cannabinoids can be increased and therapeutic benefits 

achieved.

The entourage effect also accounts for cannabis extracts to be effective in treating various bacterial infections. 

There are a number of studies which show the antibacterial properties of cannabinoids.

“Whole-plant cannabis extracts have non-cannabinoid constituents which also have antibacterial properties.”

However, bacteria develop defense mechanisms over time to combat the effects of antibiotics ultimately allowing them to 

become resistant to therapies which were previously effective.

Thus, it is beneficial that whole-plant cannabis extracts have non-cannabinoid constituents that also have antibacterial 

properties. These molecules attack bacteria through pathways which differ from cannabinoid pathways. Given the attack 

on multiple fronts, the development of bacterial resistance is limited.

Minimizing Adverse Side Effects

Finally, the entourage effect allows certain cannabinoids to modulate the negative side effects of other cannabinoids. 

The most fitting example of this is CBD’s ability to modulate the perceived negative effects of THC.

Many patients have heard about (or experienced) the increased anxiety and paranoia sometimes associated with cannabis 

consumption. Thanks to the entourage effect, research has shown that CBD can be effective in minimizing the anxiety 

associated with THC, lowering users’ feelings of paranoia.

As you can see, THC, CBD, and the remaining cannabinoids don’t have to compete with one another – they can work in 

tandem alongside the other components of cannabis extracts to provide therapeutic relief for a wide variety of ailments.

  

Chen A (20 April 2017). "Some of the Parts: Is Marijuana's "Entourage Effect" Scientifically Valid?". Scientific American. Retrieved 2017-12-31. 

Decarboxylation

 Under Construction.